Anna Łupicka, Katarzyna Grzybowska


This paper attempts to answer the following question: what competencies seem essential for future managers of Industry 4.0? The pharmaceutical and automotive  sector were selected for the purpose of study. Both sectors are oriented toward ongoing improvement of competencies. In the article a comparative analysis of the expectations of practitioners and visions of scientists, theoreticians and students was carried out.


future competencies, Industry 4.0, managerial competencies

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